Cortinarius papulosus  Fr. (1838)                                                               *California collections
Syn: Cortinarius castaneicolor
(A.H. Smith, 1939)

This classic Frisian Cort is quite common in the Northern California conifer habitat.  It's most apparent characteristic is the superficial resemblance to Hygrophorus discoideus, which the great friar noted himself. In general the members of Cliduchi/Triumphantes that feature ochraceous girdles of partial veil remnants on the stipe present a complex maze of species that are not easy to to tell apart and many probably are synonyms. In that respect papulosus stands out and other than its distinguished appearance, differs also by its smaller spores and the unique lilac-gray to greenish reaction with KOH on the cap.

Spores: (7.5) 8-9 (10) x 4.8-5.3 (6.3)μ

KOH5%: rather distinct reaction  --  lilac-gray