Xeromphalina cauticinalis
(California, costal and montane regions) This one is a Western species apparently. It belongs in the Mutabiles section (sensu A.H. Smith) where the lamellar trama turns red when mounted in KOH.

KOH: lamellar trama turns red

Cheilocystidia: Irregularly shaped, forming a sterile bend along the gill edge.

Caulocystidia -- the most important characteristic when defining Xerampelina.

Xeromphalina fulvipes
(Murrill; A.H. Smith) O.K. Miller

Easily distinguishable by

        (1) Adnate, NON DECURRENT gills
        (2) Bitter taste;
        (3&4) Some easy microscopy:

(3) Tiny, allantoid to cylindrical spores 4.5-5.3x1.6-2.2;

(4) Frequent, branched caulocystidia, mostly concentrated in the upper stem, but also appear along the entire length.

At age...